2018 – Adult Diabetes

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Findings shed light on variations in response to treatment between diabetics –and could help identify those at high risk of complications Nicola Davis @NicolaKSDavis The Guardian; Thu 1 Mar 2018 23.30 GMT Tailored treatment of the disease could be possible in the future, say scientists. Photograph: Peter Byrne/PA Diabetes that begins in adulthood falls into five distinct categories, new research has revealed, with scientists suggesting it is time to ditch the idea that diabetes is largely split into two types. Researchers say all of the newly classified subgroups are genetically distinct and have numerous differences, including the age at which they tend to occur and different levels of risk for complications such as kidney disease. Diabetes diagnoses have more than doubled in 20 years, UK analysis suggests. The team say the findings shed light on why some diabetics respond very differently to treatment than others, adding that it could help identify those who might be at high risk of complications, and lead to tailored treatment of the disease. At present, diabetes is classified into two main forms, both of which have links to genetics. Type 1 is an autoimmune condition where the hormone insulin is not produced, and which generally develops in childhood. The more common form, type 2, in which little insulin is produced or does not trigger glucose uptake by the body’s cells, generally develops later in life and is linked to obesity. However, the latest study suggests this classification is too simplistic. Writing in the journal The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, researchers describe how they discovered the five sub-groups by analysing information from 8,980 diabetics diagnosed as adults in a Swedish registry. The results were confirmed using data from 5,795 other adult patients across another three further databases from Sweden and Finland. The team say the findings show that type 1 diabetes and a late-onset autoimmune form of diabetes can be grouped together as one form, dubbed severe autoimmune diabetes. However the researchers say what would generally have been called “type 2” diabetes in fact encompasses four categories, two of which are severe forms of the disease. One, dubbed severe insulin-deficient diabetes, shows similar features to the autoimmune group such as relatively low body mass index (BMI), lack of insulin and early onset, but did not have telltale antibodies indicating an autoimmune disease. Diabetic eye disease was most common in this group. While this group had the highest proportion of patients on the drug metformin, Groop said this was not the optimum treatment. “They clearly need insulin very soon, almost as much as ‘type 1’,” he said. The other severe category, called severe insulin-resistant diabetes, is linked to obesity and shows a strong tendency for the body’s cells not to respond to insulin,...

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2014 -Research: The way to mow down massage misconceptions

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By Erika Kruger Building and maintaining ones own practice can become an all-consuming activity revolving around the business aspects thereof. This often leaves very little time to stay abreast of the latest research in the massage field. Professional bodies offset this dilemma by managing compulsory continued professional development programmes and the launch of such a programme by the Allied Health Professions Council of South Africa for massage therapists seems to be imminent. But until then we are left to our own devices to research the newest developments in our chosen field. Thanks to modern technology, information is more accessible than ever before but it takes some practice to find ones way on the World Wide Web. Knowing that I regularly surf the Internet to find information for the blog Ingelyf / Somatalk and Facebook page (www.facebook.com/groups/121493759109/) which I administer for the Massage Therapy Association SA, the editor of In Touch asked me to share with the readers what I come across in this column. The aim is not to regurgitate what is available on the Internet or in print. After all, reading the primary source is a fundamental principle of critical reading and the research process. In this column I would like to guide the readers to interesting and noteworthy developments directly and indirectly related to massage. We have to always keep in mind that no single research study offers the final answer to a question or problem. Theory is build up bit by bit and a hypothesis is only considered the most valid explanation for a phenomenon once the experiment which originally ‘proved’ it, has been repeated successfully by other researchers. It is thus vital that as health professionals we foster our skills of discrimination and critical evaluation when reading for research. Too often I still read outdated, unproven and unsubstantiated ‘facts’ in popular magazine articles and wellness websites spewed out by practitioners of a plethora of scientifically validated and not-validated therapies. More often these half-truths and blatant lies are repeated as gospel by patients. I make a point of mowing down these massage myths and misinformation as part of the informed consent process. There are stories like the one about a rubdown that can clear (unspecified) toxins from the body and the compulsory glass of water offered after a massage that assists in flushing it out. Or what about the tale about massaging the feet and ankles of pregnant women can lead to a miscarriage? I am sure you too have heard the one about the no-pain-no-gain approach being the only effective way of doing things. And then there is my all-time favourite: Massage can get rid of cellulite! Oh wouldn’t all of us have been wonderfully...

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2013- What the amateur golfer should know about the biomechanics of the golf swing

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Sean Cochran is one of the most recognized golf fitness instructors in the world today. He travels the PGA Tour working with most notably Masters and PGA Champion Phil Mickelson. To learn more about Sean and his golf fitness programmes go tohttp://www.seancochran.com. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Sean_Cochran If you’ve read some of my articles in the past, we focused a lot on training the body to help you provide more power, consistency and accuracy to your golf swing. Today, we are going to get a little more scientific. I am going to explain the biomechanics of golf. Biomechanics is the study of human movement. Using this definition in golf, it is essentially studying how the body moves when swinging a golf club. Biomechanics is the study what the skeleton, muscles, and nerves of the body do when hitting a golf ball. There are actually folks out there that make a living studying these movements, they are called Biomechanists’. And the great thing about golf is that there have been a ton of scientific studies on the golf swing. In addition, this research has allowed biomechanists to create a model of the “optimal” swing in the sport of golf. All of this research has been beneficial to the golf industry. It has provided club manufacturers, swing coaches, trainers, and players with an abundant amount of knowledge to improve the game in many areas. Biomechanics of the Golf Swing Stage by Stage Most biomechanists break the golf swing down into phases. We will talk about the swing into the following phases: 1) address, 2) back swing, 3) transition, 4) down swing, 4) contact, 5) follow through, 6) finish. I will also relate what the body does during each of these phases, which muscles are active, and any additional information applicable to biomechanical study of the golf swing. The golf swing begins in the address stage. The address stage is the position that the golfer places their body in to begin the swing. According to Glenn Fleisig MD, the address position is a functional body position which includes the proper grip and body position. A balanced, “athletic” address position, which is consistent swing to swing, will provide the golfer with the correct starting position for the swing. Inconsistency in either how the body is set up or with the grip leads to inconsistency on shot to shot. The body in terms of muscle activity is fairly low at address. The muscles of the body are supporting the body in a specific anatomical position and preparing it to swing a club. The back swing (take away) is when the body begins to move the club. The back swing is the portion of the swing that places...

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2013 – Tuberculosis

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Focus on treatment of Tuberculosis by Lisa Roese, Massage Therapy Institute Student. DEFINITION Tuberculosis results from infection with myocobacterium tuberculosis. It is a communicable infectious disease that most often affects the lungs and pleura. A number of strains affect animals, the two which affect humans are the “human strain” and the “bovine strain”. The organism is rod shaped and appears in the form of a bacillus. The bacteria destroy the lung tissue that is replaced by fibrous connective tissue. Because this tissue is inelastic and thick, the affected areas of the lungs do not recoil well during expiration and air is retained. Oxygen and carbon dioxide have difficulty in diffusing through fibrous tissue. CAUSES Tuberculosis is caused by myocobacterium tuberculosis and spread by inhalation and exhalation. It can withstand exposure to many disinfectants but dies quickly in sunlight. It is associated with overcrowding, poverty and poor immune systems. The failure to comply with drug therapy and belief systems in disease causation may add to its spread. LIFECYCLE When a person first becomes infected, a tubercule is formed in the lungs. This stage is usually asymptomatic. The disease may be arrested, the tubercule becoming calcified and fibrosed. The microbes may however survive in the tubercule, and only months or years later become the source of infection (depending on the hosts resistance and immunity) or the disease may spread to other parts of the lungs or pleura, or other parts of the body. The disease may spread via: Inhalation of organisms into the lungs Ingestion of organisms into the gastro-intestinal tract (bovine strain) Rarely by inoculation through the skin SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Some of the general symptoms of tuberculosis may include: fever night sweats weight loss malaise swollen lymph nodes chronic cough coughing up blood (in serious cases) loss of appetite sometimes diarrhoea When tuberculosis infects a human for the first time it results in what is called “primary/childhood type TB”. It settles in the middle zone of the lungs (that is the apex of the lower lobe or lower part of the upper lobe). A small area of inflammation develops sub-pleurally, which is usually about 1 -1.5cm in diameter. After about fourteen days it has spread to the regional lymph nodes. In the majority of cases healing by fibrosis takes place at this stage. Most primary infections probably pass unnoticed clinically. However in a few cases the infections spread to give rise to overt disease, either at the time of the infection or later. Secondary or adult tuberculosis may result from the reactivation of a primary lesion in which organisms had lain quiescent in the lung (or elsewhere), to cause disease when the patient’s resistance is lowered, for example from...

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2013 – Therapeutic massage can prevent golfers’ injuries from becoming permanent handicaps

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FOCUS ON SPORTS MASSAGE: Mandy Eagar investigates the most common injuries that golfers present with, and explains how therapeutic massage therapy can be incorporated into their lifestyles as a method of preventative care. The aim of this article is to investigate the most common injuries that golfers present with, and how therapeutic massage therapy can be incorporated into their lifestyle as a method of preventative care. In golf, as in most sports, participants are prone to a number of very specific injuries. In this article I will be focusing on golf injuries involving the shoulder, elbow and lower back namely rotator cuff injuries, medial epicondylitis and lower back pain It is important to look at why these injuries occur in order to understand how to prevent them from recurring. I argue that the biggest culprit is poor posture whilst playing golf and performing day-to-day activities. This leads to misalignment of the musculoskeletal structure and ineffective use of the joints. It can also lead to muscle imbalances which cause weakness in some muscles and overpowering strength in others. This will cause problems in the joint/s they act on. Other reasons for these injuries include faulty swing mechanics and general overuse of an area. First consider the shoulder joint. Golfers often complain of a burning or twinge of pain that is felt in the shoulder joint, which usually gets worse when they are playing and subsides when they rest. The pain is usually muscle related. The muscles causing the pain are usually the supraspinatus and teres minor as they are overstretched or forced into a contraction against too much resistance. This may cause damage to the muscle fibres. The muscles of the rotator cuff are usually the ones affected and they are the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor (Nedeff 2003). Simple tests can be done to determine which muscles of the rotator cuff are involved. In the following section I discuss some of these tests. TEST FOR LATERAL ROTATORS Both the infraspinatus and teres minor are responsible for lateral rotation of the shoulder joint and stabilizing the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity during movements of this joint. To test whether these muscles are weak, the patient lies prone on the plinth with the arm to be tested abducted from the shoulder in a perpendicular position from the body. The elbow is bent to a 90-degree angle with the fingers pointing in the direction of the head and the forearm parallel to the body. Ensure the shoulder is the only part supported by the plinth. The therapist places their right hand under the upper arm near the elbow to prevent an adduction or abduction movement of the humerus....

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